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2017/11/30

Raspberry Pi 3に PortAudioを入れて USBマイクを接続して音声入力を行なう方法 Raspberry Pi 3に PortAudioを入れて USBマイクを接続して音声入力を行なう方法

(ラズパイに USB Micを接続して音声入力をする方法(PortAudio編))

Tags: [Raspberry Pi], [電子工作]






● Raspberry Pi 3 Model Bを遂に購入

 Raspberry Pi3 Model B RPI2 RPI3

 大人気の CPUボードの Raspberry Piに WiFiと Bluetoothが搭載されたモデルが新発売となりました。
 以前から Raspberry Pi 2を買おうかどうか迷っていましたが、Raspberry Pi 3 Model Bの発売を機に購入を決意してラズベリアンになる事にしました。

 ※ ラズパイの OS Raspbianはバージョンが上がる毎に過去の版と OSの内部の作りが変わり、過去に書かれた製作記事(例えば Raspbian Wheezyの時代の記事)がそのままではエラーが出たりして動かない事が有ります。
 ※ 当方のホームページのラズパイ記事は全て Raspberry Pi 3 Model Bと Raspbian Jessieの組み合わせで動作確認をしております。
(ただし、将来的に新しい Raspbian OSが出た場合に、当方の Raspbian Jessieを基にした内容がそのままでは動かない可能性が有ります。)
 ※ 2017/08/16から Raspbian OSは Raspbian Jessieから Raspbian Stretchに変わりました。

Download Raspbian for Raspberry Pi

ちなみに、歴代のバージョンと名称は
Debianコードネーム年月備考
Debian 9Stretch2017/08/16~
Debian 8Jessie2015~2016/02からラズパイ3対応
Debian 7Wheezy2013~2016
Debian 6.0Squeeze2011~2014
Debian GNU/Linux 5.0Lenny2009~2012


● Raspberry Pi 3で PortAudioする方法

PortAudio

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install libasound-dev

cd
wget http://www.portaudio.com/archives/pa_stable_v190600_20161030.tgz
tar zxvf pa_stable_v190600_20161030.tgz

cd
cd portaudio
./configure

./configure --help

make

sudo make install

------------------------------------------------------------
PortAudio was successfully installed.

On some systems (e.g. Linux) you should run 'ldconfig' now
to make the shared object available.  You may also need to
modify your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable to include
the directory /usr/local/lib
------------------------------------------------------------

cd
nano .bashrc

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/usr/local/lib

pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio $ ./configure --help
`configure' configures this package to adapt to many kinds of systems.

Usage: ./configure [OPTION]... [VAR=VALUE]...

To assign environment variables (e.g., CC, CFLAGS...), specify them as
VAR=VALUE.  See below for descriptions of some of the useful variables.

Defaults for the options are specified in brackets.

Configuration:
  -h, --help              display this help and exit
      --help=short        display options specific to this package
      --help=recursive    display the short help of all the included packages
  -V, --version           display version information and exit
  -q, --quiet, --silent   do not print `checking ...' messages
      --cache-file=FILE   cache test results in FILE [disabled]
  -C, --config-cache      alias for `--cache-file=config.cache'
  -n, --no-create         do not create output files
      --srcdir=DIR        find the sources in DIR [configure dir or `..']

Installation directories:
  --prefix=PREFIX         install architecture-independent files in PREFIX
                          [/usr/local]
  --exec-prefix=EPREFIX   install architecture-dependent files in EPREFIX
                          [PREFIX]

By default, `make install' will install all the files in
`/usr/local/bin', `/usr/local/lib' etc.  You can specify
an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' using `--prefix',
for instance `--prefix=$HOME'.

For better control, use the options below.

Fine tuning of the installation directories:
  --bindir=DIR            user executables [EPREFIX/bin]
  --sbindir=DIR           system admin executables [EPREFIX/sbin]
  --libexecdir=DIR        program executables [EPREFIX/libexec]
  --sysconfdir=DIR        read-only single-machine data [PREFIX/etc]
  --sharedstatedir=DIR    modifiable architecture-independent data [PREFIX/com]
  --localstatedir=DIR     modifiable single-machine data [PREFIX/var]
  --libdir=DIR            object code libraries [EPREFIX/lib]
  --includedir=DIR        C header files [PREFIX/include]
  --oldincludedir=DIR     C header files for non-gcc [/usr/include]
  --datarootdir=DIR       read-only arch.-independent data root [PREFIX/share]
  --datadir=DIR           read-only architecture-independent data [DATAROOTDIR]
  --infodir=DIR           info documentation [DATAROOTDIR/info]
  --localedir=DIR         locale-dependent data [DATAROOTDIR/locale]
  --mandir=DIR            man documentation [DATAROOTDIR/man]
  --docdir=DIR            documentation root [DATAROOTDIR/doc/PACKAGE]
  --htmldir=DIR           html documentation [DOCDIR]
  --dvidir=DIR            dvi documentation [DOCDIR]
  --pdfdir=DIR            pdf documentation [DOCDIR]
  --psdir=DIR             ps documentation [DOCDIR]

System types:
  --build=BUILD     configure for building on BUILD [guessed]
  --host=HOST       cross-compile to build programs to run on HOST [BUILD]
  --target=TARGET   configure for building compilers for TARGET [HOST]

Optional Features:
  --disable-option-checking  ignore unrecognized --enable/--with options
  --disable-FEATURE       do not include FEATURE (same as --enable-FEATURE=no)
  --enable-FEATURE[=ARG]  include FEATURE [ARG=yes]
  --enable-debug-output   Enable debug output [no]
  --enable-cxx            Enable C++ bindings [no]
  --enable-mac-debug      Enable Mac debug [no]
  --enable-mac-universal  Build Mac universal binaries [yes]
  --enable-shared[=PKGS]  build shared libraries [default=yes]
  --enable-static[=PKGS]  build static libraries [default=yes]
  --enable-fast-install[=PKGS]
                          optimize for fast installation [default=yes]
  --disable-libtool-lock  avoid locking (might break parallel builds)

Optional Packages:
  --with-PACKAGE[=ARG]    use PACKAGE [ARG=yes]
  --without-PACKAGE       do not use PACKAGE (same as --with-PACKAGE=no)
  --with-alsa             Enable support for ALSA [autodetect]
  --with-jack             Enable support for JACK [autodetect]
  --with-oss              Enable support for OSS [autodetect]
  --with-asihpi           Enable support for ASIHPI [autodetect]
  --with-winapi           Select Windows API support
                          ([wmme|directx|asio|wasapi|wdmks][,...]) [wmme]
  --with-asiodir          ASIO directory [/usr/local/asiosdk2]
  --with-dxdir            DirectX directory [/usr/local/dx7sdk]

  --with-pic[=PKGS]       try to use only PIC/non-PIC objects [default=use
                          both]
  --with-gnu-ld           assume the C compiler uses GNU ld [default=no]
  --with-sysroot=DIR Search for dependent libraries within DIR
                        (or the compiler's sysroot if not specified).

Some influential environment variables:
  CC          C compiler command
  CFLAGS      C compiler flags
  LDFLAGS     linker flags, e.g. -L<lib dir> if you have libraries in a
              nonstandard directory <lib dir>
  LIBS        libraries to pass to the linker, e.g. -l<library>
  CPPFLAGS    (Objective) C/C++ preprocessor flags, e.g. -I<include dir> if
              you have headers in a nonstandard directory <include dir>
  CXX         C++ compiler command
  CXXFLAGS    C++ compiler flags
  CPP         C preprocessor
  CXXCPP      C++ preprocessor
  PKG_CONFIG  path to pkg-config utility
  PKG_CONFIG_PATH
              directories to add to pkg-config's search path
  PKG_CONFIG_LIBDIR
              path overriding pkg-config's built-in search path
  JACK_CFLAGS C compiler flags for JACK, overriding pkg-config
  JACK_LIBS   linker flags for JACK, overriding pkg-config

Use these variables to override the choices made by `configure' or to help
it to find libraries and programs with nonstandard names/locations.

Report bugs to the package provider.

pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio/bin $ ./pa_devs
ALSA lib pcm_dmix.c:1052:(snd_pcm_dmix_open) unable to open slave
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.rear
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.center_lfe
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.side
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.hdmi
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.hdmi
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.modem
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.modem
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.phoneline
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.phoneline
ALSA lib confmisc.c:1281:(snd_func_refer) Unable to find definition 'defaults.bluealsa.device'
ALSA lib conf.c:4528:(_snd_config_evaluate) function snd_func_refer returned error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib conf.c:4996:(snd_config_expand) Args evaluate error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM bluealsa
ALSA lib confmisc.c:1281:(snd_func_refer) Unable to find definition 'defaults.bluealsa.device'
ALSA lib conf.c:4528:(_snd_config_evaluate) function snd_func_refer returned error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib conf.c:4996:(snd_config_expand) Args evaluate error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM bluealsa
ALSA lib pcm_dmix.c:1052:(snd_pcm_dmix_open) unable to open slave
PortAudio version: 0x00130600
Version text: 'PortAudio V19.6.0-devel, revision 396fe4b6699ae929d3a685b3ef8a7e97396139a4'
Number of devices = 6
--------------------------------------- device #0
[ Default Input ]
Name                        = USB PnP Sound Device: Audio (hw:0,0)
Host API                    = ALSA
Max inputs = 1, Max outputs = 0
Default low input latency   =   0.0087
Default low output latency  =  -1.0000
Default high input latency  =   0.0348
Default high output latency =  -1.0000
Default sample rate         = 44100.00
Supported standard sample rates
 for half-duplex 16 bit 1 channel input =
        44100.00, 48000.00
--------------------------------------- device #1
Name                        = bcm2835 ALSA: - (hw:1,0)
Host API                    = ALSA
Max inputs = 0, Max outputs = 2
Default low input latency   =  -1.0000
Default low output latency  =   0.0058
Default high input latency  =  -1.0000
Default high output latency =   0.0348
Default sample rate         = 44100.00
Supported standard sample rates
 for half-duplex 16 bit 2 channel output =
         8000.00,  9600.00, 11025.00, 12000.00,
        16000.00, 22050.00, 24000.00, 32000.00,
        44100.00, 48000.00
--------------------------------------- device #2
Name                        = bcm2835 ALSA: IEC958/HDMI (hw:1,1)
Host API                    = ALSA
Max inputs = 0, Max outputs = 2
Default low input latency   =  -1.0000
Default low output latency  =   0.0058
Default high input latency  =  -1.0000
Default high output latency =   0.0348
Default sample rate         = 44100.00
Supported standard sample rates
 for half-duplex 16 bit 2 channel output =
        44100.00, 48000.00
--------------------------------------- device #3
Name                        = sysdefault
Host API                    = ALSA
Max inputs = 128, Max outputs = 0
Default low input latency   =   0.0213
Default low output latency  =  -1.0000
Default high input latency  =   0.0213
Default high output latency =  -1.0000
Default sample rate         = 48000.00
Supported standard sample rates
 for half-duplex 16 bit 128 channel input =
         8000.00,  9600.00, 11025.00, 16000.00,
        22050.00, 32000.00, 44100.00, 48000.00,
        88200.00
--------------------------------------- device #4
Name                        = spdif
Host API                    = ALSA
Max inputs = 1, Max outputs = 0
Default low input latency   =   0.0087
Default low output latency  =  -1.0000
Default high input latency  =   0.0348
Default high output latency =  -1.0000
Default sample rate         = 44100.00
Supported standard sample rates
 for half-duplex 16 bit 1 channel input =
        44100.00, 48000.00
--------------------------------------- device #5
[ Default Output ]
Name                        = default
Host API                    = ALSA
Max inputs = 0, Max outputs = 2
Default low input latency   =  -1.0000
Default low output latency  =   0.0058
Default high input latency  =  -1.0000
Default high output latency =   0.0348
Default sample rate         = 44100.00
Supported standard sample rates
 for half-duplex 16 bit 2 channel output =
         8000.00,  9600.00, 11025.00, 12000.00,
        16000.00, 22050.00, 24000.00, 32000.00,
        44100.00, 48000.00
----------------------------------------------

pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio/bin $ ./paex_record
patest_record.c
ALSA lib pcm_dmix.c:1052:(snd_pcm_dmix_open) unable to open slave
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.rear
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.center_lfe
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.side
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.hdmi
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.hdmi
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.modem
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.modem
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.phoneline
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.phoneline
ALSA lib confmisc.c:1281:(snd_func_refer) Unable to find definition 'defaults.bluealsa.device'
ALSA lib conf.c:4528:(_snd_config_evaluate) function snd_func_refer returned error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib conf.c:4996:(snd_config_expand) Args evaluate error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM bluealsa
ALSA lib confmisc.c:1281:(snd_func_refer) Unable to find definition 'defaults.bluealsa.device'
ALSA lib conf.c:4528:(_snd_config_evaluate) function snd_func_refer returned error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib conf.c:4996:(snd_config_expand) Args evaluate error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM bluealsa
ALSA lib pcm_dmix.c:1052:(snd_pcm_dmix_open) unable to open slave
Expression 'parameters->channelCount <= maxChans' failed in 'src/hostapi/alsa/pa_linux_alsa.c', line: 1513
Expression 'ValidateParameters( inputParameters, hostApi, StreamDirection_In )' failed in 'src/hostapi/alsa/pa_linux_alsa.c', line: 2813
An error occured while using the portaudio stream
Error number: -9998
Error message: Invalid number of channels
pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio/bin $ sudo ./paex_record
patest_record.c
ALSA lib pcm_dmix.c:1052:(snd_pcm_dmix_open) unable to open slave
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.rear
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.center_lfe
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.side
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.hdmi
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.hdmi
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.modem
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.modem
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.phoneline
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM cards.pcm.phoneline
ALSA lib confmisc.c:1281:(snd_func_refer) Unable to find definition 'defaults.bluealsa.device'
ALSA lib conf.c:4528:(_snd_config_evaluate) function snd_func_refer returned error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib conf.c:4996:(snd_config_expand) Args evaluate error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM bluealsa
ALSA lib confmisc.c:1281:(snd_func_refer) Unable to find definition 'defaults.bluealsa.device'
ALSA lib conf.c:4528:(_snd_config_evaluate) function snd_func_refer returned error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib conf.c:4996:(snd_config_expand) Args evaluate error: No such file or directory
ALSA lib pcm.c:2495:(snd_pcm_open_noupdate) Unknown PCM bluealsa
ALSA lib pcm_dmix.c:1052:(snd_pcm_dmix_open) unable to open slave
ALSA lib pcm_dmix.c:1052:(snd_pcm_dmix_open) unable to open slave

=== Now recording!! Please speak into the microphone. ===
index = 41984
index = 86016
index = 130560
index = 174592
index = 218624
index = 220500
sample max amplitude = 0.02807617
sample average = 0.002332

=== Now playing back. ===
Waiting for playback to finish.
Done.

$ gcc paex_record.c -lportaudio
paex_record.c:46:23: fatal error: portaudio.h: No such file or directory
 #include "portaudio.h"
                       ^
compilation terminated.

gcc paex_record.c -lportaudio


● raw-wave to flac

sudo apt-get install flac

flac --endian=little --channels=1 --bps=16 --sample-rate=16000 --sign=signed recorded.raw

pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio/examples $ flac --endian=little --channels=1 --bps=16 --sample-rate=16000 --sign=signed recorded.raw

flac 1.3.2
Copyright (C) 2000-2009  Josh Coalson, 2011-2016  Xiph.Org Foundation
flac comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.  This is free software, and you are
welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions.  Type `flac' for details.

recorded.raw: wrote 108162 bytes, ratio=0.659


● Raspberry Pi 3で

 音声出力の音量の設定
$ alsamixer

 音声出力 ヘッドホンジャック
$ amixer cset numid=3 1

 スピーカーのテスト
$ speaker-test -t sine -f 800

pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio $ cat /proc/asound/modules
 0 snd_bcm2835
 1 snd_usb_audio

sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base.conf

options snd slots=snd_usb_audio,snd_bcm2835
options snd_usb_audio index=0
options snd_bcm2835 index=1

sudo reboot

cat /proc/asound/modules

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ cat /proc/asound/modules
 0 snd_usb_audio
 1 snd_bcm2835

●マイクの入力をスピーカに出力する( 1秒程度の遅延が有る)
$ arecord -fS16_LE -r16000 -Dhw:1 | aplay
 Ctrl+Cで終了


export ALSADEV="plughw:1,0"
echo $ALSADEV


pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio $ arecord -M -d5 -twav -r 16000 test_16k.wav -D plughw:1
Recording WAVE 'test_16k.wav' : Unsigned 8 bit, Rate 16000 Hz, Mono


pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio $ arecord -M -d5 -twav -r16000 -fS16_LE test_16k.wav -D plughw:1
Recording WAVE 'test_16k.wav' : Signed 16 bit Little Endian, Rate 16000 Hz, Mono

lsusb

pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio $ lsusb
Bus 001 Device 006: ID 0e8f:2517 GreenAsia Inc.
Bus 001 Device 005: ID 058f:9254 Alcor Micro Corp. Hub
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 0d8c:013c C-Media Electronics, Inc. CM108 Audio Controller
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0424:ec00 Standard Microsystems Corp. SMSC9512/9514 Fast Ethernet Adapter
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 0424:9514 Standard Microsystems Corp. SMC9514 Hub
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

arecord -l

pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio $ arecord -l
**** List of CAPTURE Hardware Devices ****
card 1: Device [USB PnP Sound Device], device 0: USB Audio [USB Audio]
  Subdevices: 1/1
  Subdevice #0: subdevice #0

amixer sget Mic -c 1

pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio $ amixer sget Mic -c 1
Simple mixer control 'Mic',0
  Capabilities: cvolume cvolume-joined cswitch cswitch-joined
  Capture channels: Mono
  Limits: Capture 0 - 16
  Mono: Capture 0 [0%] [0.00dB] [on]

amixer sset Mic 16 -c 1

pi@raspberrypi:~/portaudio $ amixer sset Mic 16 -c 1
Simple mixer control 'Mic',0
  Capabilities: cvolume cvolume-joined cswitch cswitch-joined
  Capture channels: Mono
  Limits: Capture 0 - 16
  Mono: Capture 16 [100%] [23.81dB] [on]



Tags: [Raspberry Pi], [電子工作]

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Raspberry Pi 3の GPIOに LEDとスイッチを接続してシャットダウンボタンを実装する方法
Raspberry Pi 3で GPIO端子の I2C機能を有効化する方法
Raspberry Pi 3の GPIOに I2C通信方式の気圧計 BMP280を接続する方法
Raspberry Pi 3に I2C通信方式の NFCリーダライタ PN532を接続して NFC FeliCaカードを読む方法
Raspberry Pi 3でネットワーク ライブカメラを構築する方法 Motion編
Raspberry Pi 3でネットワーク ライブカメラを構築する方法 MJPG-streamer編
Raspberry Pi 3 Model Bで動画処理アプリ FFmpegをコンパイルする方法
Raspberry Pi3の X-Window Systemに Windowsのリモートデスクトップから接続する方法
Raspberry Pi3に WebRTCの STUN/TRUNサーバと PeerJSサーバをインストールする方法


Espressif ESP8266 Arduino互換でスケッチが使える ESP-12Eモジュール基板
Espressif ESP8266 Arduino互換でスケッチが使える ESP-12Eモジュール基板

  Espressif ESP8266 ESP-12-E NodeMCU V1 ESP12 CP2102

BangGood通販はドローン以外にも面白い商品がまだまだ有った(電子工作編)
BangGood通販はドローン以外にも面白い商品がまだまだ有った(電子工作編)

  レーザー彫刻機、カラー液晶の DIYオシロ、Arduinoや Raspberry Pi用の小型カラー液晶



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